Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon and other alloying elements containing less than 2.14% carbon. Like steel, they are considered alloys in practice, they contain mainly iron and can be transformed into other compounds.

We generally divide steel into hot-rolled steel and cold-rolled steel.

The feedstock for cold-rolled products consists of steel plates or hot-rolled coils. These are further refined by rolling, re-crystallizing annealing and again light rolling. The result is a uniform structure and better surface material than hot-rolled sheets. Cold-rolled steel products are therefore used in the automotive and electronics industries.

The advantage of hot-rolled steel plates is good weldability. That is why they are intended for the engineering, construction and energy industries.

Properties and use of steel

The popularity of steel products primarily lies in its high strength, excellent formability, aesthetics and resistance to corrosion. If we take the reasonable acquisition costs into account, steel is the ideal starting material in almost all industries. Specifically, we can mention the loadbearing structure of buildings, bridges and walkways, stairs, etc. Another advantage is also the full recyclability of steel structures.

DIN 1.4301 -  AISI 304.

Steel resistant to water, steam, humidity, weak organic and inorganic acids up to medium temperatures. It has wide opportunities of application, e.g. in foodstuffs, dairy, brewery and viniculture industries, in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, home appliances, household goods, in the production of chemical instruments, in architecture, for surgical instruments, for the construction food preparation facilities and sanitary equipment.

DIN 1.4306 - AISI 304L.:

Chemical resistance is comparable with material DIN 1.4306, and retains similar benefits of application however cold formability is better. Applications can be found in production of welded structures and products.

DIN 1.4305 - AISI 303:

Thanks to very good workability this steel is commonly known as automate type one. It is applied for the manufacture of components for automated machinery and the manufacture of standard machine components.

DIN 1.4541 - AISI 321:

The chemical resistance is similar to that of DIN 1.4301 and has the same benefits of application. Thanks to stabilisation by titanium it is impossible to polish it to high gloss. This material very suitable for structures with a thickness over 6 mm, which can not be heat treated after welding. Applications are typical in the pharmaceutical, chemical and power engineering fields.

DIN 1.4401 - AISI 316

This grade of steel is used where construction components and tools are to be of medium strength. This steel resists permanent effects of water, steam and humidity. It is applied in the chemical, textile, pharmaceutical, paper and foodstuff fields ensuring minimum contamination of food.

DIN 1.4404,1.4435 - AISI 316L:

These steel grades have increased corrosion resistance in chemical environments. It is used for structural components, instruments and apparatus in the chemical industry. It features with high chemical stress especially through forming, acetic, sulphuric and phosphoric acids. Another typical application covers equipment that is in contact with saltwater, printing industry, varnishes and sulphides, the chemical and dairy industries.

DIN 1.4571 - AISI 316Ti:

This steel is suitable for structural components, instruments and apparatus in the chemical industry, for use in media containing halogen and non-oxidizing acids and where materials free of molybdenum are not sufficient. This is a standard material within the sphere of construction the chemical instruments. Traditional applications cover chemical, pharmaceutical and rubber industries along with fields producing the pulp, textile, inks, fertilizers, plastics and fuels.

DIN 1.4016 - AISI 430:

Ferritic steel with high chromium content ensures good resistance to water, steam, humidity, and weak acid a alkaline resistance, frequent applications are in the sphere of gastronomy, in foodstuff production, household and kitchen appliances, medical technology, sanitary and air conditioning facilities.

Film Types

POLYETHYLENE FILM, BLUE, TRANSPARENT, THICKNESS – 80 MICRONS

Suitable for temporary protection of stainless sheets and coils. Very suitable for manufacturing from deep-drawing sheet, featured with an "Easy Peel" effect.

POLYETHYLENE FILM, BLACK & WHITE WITH BLUE STRIPES, THICKNESS – 80 MICRONS

Suitable for temporary protection of stainless sheets and coils. Printed stripes enable one to identify the rolling direction and/or direction of the surface treatment. Used as a standard.

POLYETHYLENE FILM, BLACK & WHITE WITH BLUE STRIPES AND ARROWS, THICKNESS – 100 MICRONS

Developed especially for temporary protection of stainless sheets and coils cut by laser, it has very high adhesiveness. Printed arrows enable one to identify the rolling direction and/or direction of the surface treatment.

Conversion table of standards and basic mechanical properties.

Comparison in accordance with ČSN, EN 10088-1 and 10088-2.

  USA Czech Republic Germany  Strength Yield value Dilatability
DIN ASTM ČSN DIN 17 440
W. Nr. AISI 420002 DIN 17 441 Rm (MPa) Rp0,2 (MPa) Rp0,1 (MPa) A 50 ( % )
1.4305 303   X8CrNiS 18 9 500 - 700 190 230 35
1.4301 304 17 240 X5CrNi18 10 540 - 750 230 260 45
1.4306 304L 17 249 X2CrNi19 11 520 - 700 250 220 45
1.4401 316 17 346 X5CrNiMo17 12 2 530 - 680 240 270 40
1.4436 316 17 352 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 550 - 700 240 270 40
1.4404 316L 17 349 X2CrNiMo17 13 2 530 - 680 240 270 40
1.4435 316L 17 350 X2CrNiMo18 14 3 550 - 700 240 270 40
1.4571 316Ti 17 348 X6CrNiMoTi17 12 2 540 - 690 240 270 40
1.4541 321 17 248 X6CrNiTi18 11 520 - 720 220 250 40
1.4016 430 17 040 X6Cr17 450 - 600 260 280 20

The above represents an approximate comparison of mechanical values.

Comparison of utility properties for information only

DIN ASTM Welding Formability Corrosion resistance Suitability
Up to T max.
dilatability
1.4305 303 Bad Bad Lowered  
1.4301 304 Good Excellent Good 400°C
1.4306 304L Excellent Very good Very good 650°C
1.4401 316 Very good Good Excellent 500°C
1.4436 316 Excellent Very good Excellent 400°C
1.4404 316L Excellent
Very good Excellent 400°C
1.4435 316L Excellent Very good Excellent 400°C
1.4571 316Ti Excellent Good
Excellent 450°C
1.4541 321 Excellent Good Very good 500°C
1.4016 430 Worse Very good Good 350°C

Comparison of chemical composition

Grade C Cr Ni Mn Mo Ti
DIN 1.4305 AISI 303 <0,10 17,0-19,0 8,0-10,0 <2,0    
DIN 1.4301 AISI 304 < 0,07 17,0 -19,0 8,0 -10,5 < 2,0 - -
DIN 1.4306 AISI 304L < 0,03 18,0 -20,0 10,0 -12,5 < 2,0 - -
DIN 1.4401 AISI 316 < 0,07 16,5 -18,5 10,5 -13,5 < 2,0 2,0 -2,5 -
DIN 1.4436 AISI 316 < 0,07 16,5 -18,5 11,0 -14,0 < 2,0 2,5 -3,0 -
DIN 1.4404 AISI 316L < 0,03 16,5 -18,5 11,0 -14,0 < 2,0 2,0 -2,5 -
DIN 1.4435 AISI 316L < 0,03 17,0 -18,5 12,5 -15,0 < 2,0 2,5 -3,0 -
DIN 1.4571 AISI 316Ti < 0,08 16,5 -18,5 10,5 -13,5 < 2,0 2,0 -2,5 5xC - 0,8
DIN 1.4541 AISI 321 < 0,08 17,0 -19,0 9,0 -12,0 < 2,0 - 5xC - 0,8
DIN 1.4016 AISI 430 < 0,08 15,5 -17,5 - < 1,0 - -

Weight table in kgs

Thickness 1000 x 2000 1250 x 2500 1500 x 3000
0,5 8 12,5  
0,6 10 15  
0,8 13 20  
1 16 25 36
1,2 19,2 30 43,2
1,5 24 37,5 54
2 32 50 72
2,5 40 62,5 90
3 48 75 108
4 64 100 144
5 80 125 180
6 96 150 216
8 128 200 288
10 160 250 360
12 192 300 432
15 240 375 540
20 320 500 720
25 400 625 900

Stainless steel sheets – marking and surface treatment

EN DIN AlSi ČSN Manufacturing procedure APPEARANCE
1D c2 (a) 1 xx xxx.2 Hot rolled, annealed, pickled Metallic gloss
2D h (IIIb) 2D xx xxx.3 Cold rolled, annealed, pickled Matt
2B n (IIIc) 2B xx xxx.4 Cold rolled, annealed, pickled, finish rolled Dull gloss
2R m (IIId) BA xx xxx.5 Cold rolled, bright annealed, finish rolled Brilliant polish
2G o (IV) 4 - 6   Grinded,  grind fineness to be specified, may be single-side or both-side grinded Grinded
2J p,q (V) N3,N4,SB   Brushed or polished, necessity to specify Brushed or polished

Survey of basic EN standards

EN – Material standards

EN 10088-1 Quality of stainless steel (general survey)
EN 10088-2 Flat products from corrosion resistant steel grades for general use
EN 10088-3 Long products from corrosion resistant steel grades for general use
EN 10095 Fire resistant steel grades and Ni alloys

EN - Dimensional Allowances

EN 10029 Cold rolled sheet
EN 10051 Hot rolled strip
EN 10259 Cold rolled corrosion resistant strip
EN 10258 Cold rolled corrosion resistant narrow strip



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